An in-text citation is used to let the reader of your work know that an outside source contributed to your writing of a particular phrase, idea, or argument. In-text citations need to be used following every direct quotation and paraphrase/summary that you write.
In-text citation for source with known author
These citations need to include the author’s last name, date that the information was published, and the page (p.) /paragraph (para.) number on which you found the information. If a signal phrase is used earlier in the sentence which includes the author’s name, the name does not need to be included in the citation.
The climate at Oxford during his studies is described as “very anti-work” (Hawking, 2013, p. 33).
In-text citation for source with unknown author
These citations need to include the title or shortened title of the work in either the signal phrase or in the citation itself, the date when the information was published, and the page/paragraph number on which the information was found. Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks.
While some suggest that transgender individuals should rely on law enforcement for protection it’s reported that “police often participate in the intimidation themselves rather than providing protection” (“Fighting Anti-Trans Violence”, 2015, para. 2).
In-text citation for source with multiple authors
These citations need to include the authors’ last names, the date when the information was published, and the page/paragraph number on which the information was found. If a signal phrase is used earlier in the sentence which includes the authors’ last names, the names do not need to be included in the citation. If the source has two authors, both authors’ last names need to be listed in the citation.
“More scientific research needs to be completed before any conclusions about causation can be drawn” (Ishiguro & Garcia, 2009, p. 198).
If the source has three – five authors, all the authors’ last names need to be used in either a signal phrase or in the citation the first time the source is cited. After the first citation, only the first author’s last name followed by “et al.” should be used.
The scientists involved in these studies have suggested that mainstream scientists and media organizations may have ulterior motives when it comes to conducting such research (De Walle, Schmidt, & Lisowski, 2010, p. 231).
However, De Walle et al. (2010) could not provide adequate evidence for this assertion (p. 233).
However, adequate evidence for this assertion could not be provided (De Walle et al., 2010 p. 233).
If the source has six or more authors, you only need to use the first author’s last name in either a signal phrase or in the citation.
The first group of researchers to take the issue seriously and perform in-depth research to identify potential negative effects of such events found some disturbing trends (Willig et al., 1998, p. 52).
Works Cited Entries
Works cited entry for book/print source with known author
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.
Ip, G. (2010). The little book of economics. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Works cited entry for an article in a scholarly journal
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article.Title of Journal, volume number, page range. doi: 0000000/000000000000 or http://dx.doi.org/10.0000/0000
Belzer, A., & Shapka J. (2015). From heroic victims to competent comrades: Views of adult literacy learners in the research literature. Adult Education Quarterly, 65.3, 250-266. Doi: 10.1177/0741713615580015
Works cited entry for a webpage
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://Web address
Ravenscraft, E. (2014, August 1). How to change your car’s oil. Retrieved from http://lifehacker.com/how-to-change-your-cars-oil-1598482301